Apple Distinguished Educators
Chain of Care in Teaching
Interactive Learning Modules (ILMs)
LAMS: Learning Activity Management System
Scenario based learning
Using iPads in L&T
Values Based Education
- Bloom's Taxonomy
- iPad for learning and teaching
- graduate attributes
- padagogy wheelhouse
- situational learning
- University of Adelaide
- articulate storyline
- Interactive Learning Modules (ILMs)
- Bethany International
- learning and teaching
- learning experience
- padagogy wheel
- Digital Taxonomy
“The new version of the Padagogy Wheel tackles a major question that is lurking in the back of everyone’s mind. If it’s not … it should be. It’s about the problem of motivation in education. How do we motivate students, teachers, parents, and everyone else to get excited about learning? How do you stay motivated? What works and what doesn’t?”
In this third podcast episode with Ken Spero, a Senior Strategist with The Regis Company, in Philadelphia, USA we talk about how the pedagogy of Immersive Learning is ideal to tackle the problem of motivation and hits the bullseye at the core of The Padagogy Wheel.
Ken introduces Engagement into the equation and how it drives motivation for learning. He talks about the relationship between motivation and learning design, arguing that the more motivated the learner is, the less context and learning design is needed, and vice versa. – hmmm, now reflecting on that takes more than one cup of coffee for sure. Moving along the subject of “fun” came up and I challenged Ken about simulations being gaming. We then proceeded to discuss the difference between gaming and simulations. It is all about reality and alternate reality of the experience.
I asked Ken if he thought Immersive learning would help teachers work with mutually agreed graduate attributes and capabilities, helping the students embed them in their lives. His response that you can’t teach these in a classroom alone but have to witness them in the real world is fascinating..
We talked about how simulations are ideal for testing and modeling attributes and capabilities measured in context. Then the challenge, that you don’t suddenly learn a capability like “perseverance”. These attributes and capabilities need to be observed – they are evidenced in behaviours. You can teach about them but that doesn’t incorporate them into behaviour.
It is so logical when you think about it …or at least when you hear Ken explain the process. If we put the learner into a situation, which requires choices and has consequences in a simple context and story, if it is realistic and the learners are engaged, we can give the learner choices or options which are equally as good as each other but which demonstrate different biases, behaviours and preferences.
Instruction is fundamentally linear, however with attributes and capabilities a lot cannot be separated from each other, they are linked – a part of the same big picture. We can provide instruction to address any of the fifteen listed in the capability list on the pedagogy wheel poster – but only one at a time. We can actually create simulations to manifest numerous of these 15 capabilities simultaneously in a story. A simulation allows us to leverage off these dynamics within the context of a story
Ken describes in detail how a simulation is a better way to provide a realistic context for learners to demonstrate attributes values and capabilities and provide a close to realistic way for learners to practice for the real world of work. He speaks of the need to adjust and prioritize.
He goes on the talk about immersion not only for adults but how it can work for the K-12 learning environments Ken explains how to immerse students into the story… the context. He uses history and the approach of having the students living in the experience … “a day in the life of” approach to a simulation.
He talks about scorecards reflecting the norms of the times and context of the simulation which makes the weighting of choices possible – how a scorecard is similar to a rubric. A scorecard reflects the core elements or behaviours and how we can address autonomy mastery and purpose … the puzzle of motivation.
I had to ask Ken in the middle of the interview … “OK I’m convinced, but how do you start to build a simulation? Is there a process and even better a checklist or template a teacher could follow when wanting to build a simulation for the first time?” He proceeded to expand his six steps on “Getting Started” from his book “Scenario-Based E-Learning”. (see link in the online resources below). Following is a direct extract of that section of his book … I can’t say it any better.
Developing a simulation includes elements such as plot and characters that may be new to many designers. However, by concentrating on your learning objectives and the desired performance outcome, you can give focus to your simulation and provide a rich and engaging learning experience. When designing your scenario, follow this six-step framework:
- Identify the specific problem or issue that needs to be fixed.
- Envision the desired experience. What do you want people to experience when they go through the narrative? Is it a change in behavior? Is it the application of a new skill? Do you want to reinforce something they have been taught elsewhere? Or to allow them to fail forward in a safe environment? What is the outcome you are looking for?
- Determine the timeline in which this experience takes place. Is it during the course of an hour-long meeting? A day-in-the-life? A week-in-the-life? A year-in-the-life? This will provide some necessary context for the narrative and determine its scope.
- Define success. How is success going to be measured in the experience? What are the learning objectives? Who are the stakeholders and how are they affected by a successful or unsuccessful learning outcome? Is there financial impact or only interpersonal? By truly understanding the scorecard, we can identify root challenges and how to successfully overcome them.
- Add conflict. Learners need to face a simulated challenge and solve it as they would in a real-life situation.
- Finish the story. After you finish the core narrative, you will be able to go back later and add branches if you like. These elements do not need to be detailed or formalised at this point—you just want enough information to provide a framework.
Now, you should have a solid foundation on which you can build a simulation that is compelling and results in better retention and transfer.
Listen to this podcast episode and download the very helpful job aid in the online resources listed below. Please don’t just file it away for future reference. As soon as possible grab a SME (subject matter expert) and work through it. Get something on paper and start building a simulation. Your students will be very grateful. Keep this up and the community will really appreciate your graduates – these graduates will truly make a difference.
It’s All About Engagement
Simulations are a tool to help students engage with the learning and I began to wonder what engagement-based learning might look like across an entire program – even across all education – and I found this TEDtalk by Gever Tulley on YouTube. He targets big questions like: Where does competence come from? and What kinds of experiences predispose children (and adults) to heroic behaviours later in life?
One of the major “ah ahas” for me in this video was “Create a meaningful experience and the learning will follow and do this BEFORE you design any sort of curriculum. Gever goes on to define a new pedagogical unit he calls the ark. Watch this video and implement this model with simulations and filter everything you design through the grids of the Padagogy Wheel. Start this at a school and arm your students with a portfolio as Gever describes and they will not only get through the university of their choice, but as graduates they will impact their worlds and make a difference.
Immersive Learning & Simulations Story So Far: If you would like to visit all the blog entries so far that are about Simulations and how to build what I have called ILMS’ (Immersive Learning Micro Simulations) using the latest multimedia software, please follow this link.
- Scenario and Simulation Authoring Job Aid: A four-page questionnaire designed as guidance for designers when working with subject matter experts (SMEs) to author a scenario-based learning program. In order to capture and deploy the most realistic and effective scenario possible, SME knowledge has to be transferred to the designer. This job aid will provide a process to capture and transfer that knowledge, through two design approaches. Approach A is an analytical approach. Answering the questions below will provide enough data to author a scenario. Approach B is a storytelling approach. Simply relate what happens in a typical day in the life of the person whose job is recreated in the scenario. Please note that names, situations, and specifics should be changed to protect the identity of the persons involved, and disguise the real-life situations if they are described to provide insight to the scenario. Download the PDF
- Scenario-Based E-Learning: Ken Spero, ASTD INFOline series Oct 2012 Allan’s comment: This is a 16 pg. booklet published by ASTD targeted at and priced for the corporate marketplace. It sells for U$25.00. Ken mentioned a one off entry. I was not able to check that for when I went to this search page, I visited a different one of the results and am now locked out. Please take care on your first visit if you want to see the book
- Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools: Addressing Transactional Need Through Experiential Simulation: In this article Ken talks about a model he calls “Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools and models it on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs … well worth a read
- Three Keys to Designing Good Scenarios: This is a short article but touches on three important tips for designing good scenarios
- ASTD Philadelphia E-Learning SIG Presentation Capturing and Deploying Experience Through Simulations with Ken Spero: This was a presentation Ken made at the ASTD in Philadelphia on Thu Sept 20th 2012. There are a good set of PowerPoint slides here for downloading.
Immersive Learning Today: Software Tools and Resources
The Padagogy Wheel Story So Far: I developed this concept in July 2012 for use in face-to-face seminars as an aid to understand how to best use the iPad for education. The interest has been amazing and it has grown into a Learning Design Model for Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching. There is the latest version of the Wheel (V3) as well as help how to get the best use from the model, please follow this link.
- Download the Latest Version of the Padagogy Wheel Poster: This PDF has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages and other online resources. It could provide the backbone of a complete course or seminar on Learning Design. If you would like help with this please just ask. It also prints well as an A3 poster. With QR Codes linking to this post and the Version 3.0 explanation. You are also encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
- Introduction to the Padagogy Wheel: A 2 minute video introduction to how the wheel works.
DOWNLOAD THE LATEST VERSION: This PDF has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages and other online resources. It could provide the backbone of a complete course or seminar on Learning Design. If you would like help with this please just ask. It also prints well as an A3 poster. With QR Codes linking to this post and the Version 3.0 explanation. You are also encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
GETTING THE BEST USE OF THE WHEEL: The Padagogy Wheel was born out of a desire to help teachers at the coalface of teaching. I wanted a model that could be applied to everything from curriculum planning, development, writing learning objectives and designing student centered activities. Then quickly help teachers access relevant educational technology e.g. individual iPad apps or sequences of apps, to enhance those activities. Finally to help teachers use that technology to redefine activities to include tasks previously inconceivable. I believe this will increase student engagement, improve learning outcomes and empower a student towards transforming into an excellent graduate.
This model is a work in progress … always under review and improvement. Remember its purpose is a reminder to teachers to rethink everything they are doing. A warning: ignoring steps is in my opinion, part of the reason some of our teaching and learning, especially in Higher Education, is so ineffective in bringing about transformation. It is helpful to think about the Wheel as a number of grids through which you filter what you are doing – a way of thinking.
- THE ATTRIBUTES GRID: This is the core of learning design. Teachers or Educator/Academics must constantly revisit Graduate Attributes, things like ethics, responsibility and citizenship, as well as Capabilities for employment. They need to do the hard yards of articulating what they expect an excellent graduate of a program is to “look like” i.e. what is it that a graduate is and does that makes them and their communities define them as successful. Some universities at least in Australia and England, and I would expect in the USA, are constantly working on their graduate attributes and are mapping their programs to them. The blog post by Geoff Scott is really eye opening for college educators. Please visit “If you exercise these capabilities.. You will be employed!” If teachers don’t have a clear picture of the qualities and capabilities of an excellent graduate of their program is, then that is a huge problem and they need to set aside quality time to define this. Now when they have this list of attributes and capabilities, they need to look at their courses and pedagogy and ask ‘how does everything I do support these attributes?’ Is there any way I can build content and activities that help students become “excellent”? Have a look at what the University of Greenwich is doing in the UK. Please visit “Graduate Attributes – Spin or Education?” and the podcast episode “What Does a Xxxxxx Graduate Look Like?“
- THE MOTIVATIONS GRID: Once they are thinking attributes and capabilities, teachers then need to constantly revisit motivation. Asking themselves “Why am I doing this again?” That is not a joke. I am referring to the choices of learning outcomes, development of activities and design of content e.g. writing text and even making videos. So the wheel introduces a 21st century model of motivation that science has developed. It is so well presented by Dan Pink in the TEDtalk “The Puzzle of Motivation” Thinking through the grid of Autonomy Mastery and Purpose and filtering everything you do from idea-creation to assessment will, I believe, significantly help your teaching be transformational. Consistently asking the question, “How does the learning environment and activity experience I am building give the learner autonomy, mastery and purpose?” Asking that question and adapting what you do could change everything.
- THE BLOOMS GRID: The Blooms Taxonomy is really a way of helping teachers design learning objectives that achieve higher order thinking. You start by thinking “cognitive domain categories”. You start with “remembering and understanding” that’s the easiest category to serve with objectives but produces the least effective objectives in achieving transformation. When supporting academics, I recommend they try to get at least one learning objective from each category and always push towards the domain category of Creating where higher order thinking takes place. This is the “By the time you finish this workshop/seminar/lesson you should be able to. . . ” type of thinking. With the emergence of the importance of social constructivism i.e. research showing the effectiveness of student centric and activity based learning, those learning objectives need to be mapped clearly to activities. So a better question is “By the time you finish this workshop/seminar/lesson you should be able to <choose and action verb> BY <then choose an activity or outcome>. Now you are ready for technology enhancement.
- THE TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENT GRID: With learning objectives and outcomes sorted, now think about technology aka apps. How can this serve your pedagogy? You can choose any app or technology you like, the wheel only suggests apps that can support the learning objectives and activities at the time of publishing. The Padagogy Wheel constantly needs updating with apps as they are released. Teachers also should think customization all the time – is there a better tool for the job of enhancing my defined pedagogy?
- THE SAMR GRID: Now is the time to think about how to apply this powerful
model. For more information on SAMR visit this Queensland Govt. Schools Classrooms Connections website. You need answers to such questions as “How are you going to use the technologies you have chosen”? Take each of your activities and think through how you will use the technology for each task. Ask yourself “Does this activity just substitute i.e. students could easily achieve tasks without this chosen technology, or can I augment or modify the tasks to improve the activity and increase engagement”? Finally sieve your curriculum building activities and your teaching practice through the SAMR grid of redefinition. Is there any task you can build into the activity that without the technology would not be possible? You can tell when you are successful with this, as there is bound to be one student who will comment “Hey that is cool!”
Please take the Padagogy Wheel out for a spin every day you are teaching and use it. Then share your experiences especially your best practice … your colleagues will benefit from your collaboration, appreciate it and together we can build transformational outcomes and help students become excellent practitioners and graduates.
The Padagogy Wheel V3.0: Learning Design starts with graduate attributes, capabilities and motivation
- DOWNLOAD: This is good quality Acrobat PDF of the Padagogy Wheel V3.0 which has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages. It also prints well as an A3 poster with QR Codes linking back to the blog entry and Youtube Video. You are encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
I am still a little numb at the amazing interest in, and discussion about, the Padagogy Wheel from teachers and educators around the world. It is only a week since I published my last blog post “The Padagogy Wheel V2.0: It’s all about transformation and integration“. and the poster is at 8000 downloads and 500-800 people visit the blog a day and about 300 tweets a day as well.. I owe a sincere thank you to Jeff Dunn and the team at Edudemic for the encouraging first article “Integrate iPads Into Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy With This ‘Padagogy Wheel’” then the second blog post “New Padagogy Wheel Helps You Integrate Technology Using SAMR Model” The second article really did whip up an interest storm. I think you will appreciate the posts.
So why yet another version only one week later? Well out of the buzz about V2.0 came a suggestion that I couldn’t lay down, it ran around my head for days. A good friend said, “You know motivation is also at the core of the Wheel … how would that work?” Add to this line of thinking the fact that it seems all the excitement is about how Blooms interacts with the SAMR model and no one seems to be talking about the core of the wheel – Graduate Attributes and Capabilities. I wanted to upgrade the communication about the core concepts of the wheel so nobody missed their importance.
Graduate Attributes and Capabilities: Without this your learning design will drift. A major ah aha for me was when Prof Geoff Scott, the Executive Director of Sustainability at University of Western Sydney (UWS), was introduced as a keynote speaker at a Learning and Teaching Conference at the University of Adelaide in 2012. It was in during that presentation Geoff introduced research they had done within the business sector. They had asked CEO’s and executives …. the people that do the hiring, what they desired to see in graduates from Higher Education programs. When he introduced us to the top 15 requested capabilities, there was almost an audible gasp. Most of these are heart attitudes and values based. There was even more exclamation when we realised that most of them were not actively targeted by our courses. The top 15 are
- Having energy, passion and enthusiasm
- Being willing to give credit to others
- Empathising & working productively with diversity
- Being transparent and honest in dealings with others
- Thinking laterally and creatively
- Being true to one’s values and ethics
- Listening to different points of view before coming to a decision
- Understanding personal strengths & limitations
- Time management skills
- Learning from errors
- Learning from experience
- Remaining calm when under pressure
- Being able to make effective presentations to different groups
- Identifying from a mass of information the core issue/opportunity
These capabilities should be identified as part of our graduate attributes and woven into the fabric of our courses in the activity design. We need to have transformation at the core of what we do as teachers if it is all about the students. Don’t jump into learning outcomes, activity design and choosing technology without first reflecting on graduate attributes and capabilities then how to improve motivation and engagement. Skip these and your course design will be weaker for it.
Please visit the blog post and listen to the podcast episode at: “If you exercise these capabilities.. you will be employed!”
The Puzzle of Motivation: Teachers use the term engagement all the time. Engagement is about motivation. If students are not motivated learning will not happen. As I researched about motivation I discovered this TEDtalk …. of course 2.5 million others knew about it first, which naturally raised my interest. As I watched it, lights went on big time. “Ah Aha! These concepts are a grid to help people improve learning activity design and they have to go into the wheel” – V3.0 was born.
Dan Pink shows what science knows about motivation and what business does about it are largely mismatched. He presents a very strong case for a rethink about motivation in business and offers a new approach and model for the 21st century. It is built around intrinsic motivations. He introduces the elements which he says are the building blocks of a completely new operating system for businesses.
- AUTONOMY: The urge to direct our own lives
- MASTERY: The desire to get better and better at something that matters
- PURPOSE: The yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves
Dan expands on the concept of Autonomy.and introduces examples of three levels of application of this type of motivation. “Fedex Days” where staff have to deliver outcomes overnight then “The 20 Percent time” … done famously at Google. Finally the “Results Only Work Environment or ROWE” where he compares the motivation and implementation for two models of encyclopedia i.e. Encarta and Wikipedia.
Please watch this video and think about how you build curriculum, how to facilitate your courses and how to motivate tomorrows students to become all they can be as leaders that make a difference. Could this model of motivation change the way we build curriculum and teach courses – I believe used as part of the Padagogy Wheel it will go a long way in the hands of passionate teachers. Please post your comments and suggestions for new apps.
I knew I was onto something useful when I first put the Padagogy Wheel together in July 2012. It was always designed to be a starting point to be developed further. It was originally meant to be an aid for my face-to-face PADAGOGY seminars which are mentioned in my post “The Padagogy Wheel … it’s a Bloomin’ Better way to Teach“. I have introduced over 600 university faculty staff to iPads in Learning and Teaching in about 20 universities in five countries in the last 3 years … I have talked a lot about iPads and can speak with some authority when I say that many teachers start at the wrong end of the process and try to work out how to use the features of the latest cool app and then think out what pedagogies will fit it. The motivation for the Padagogy Wheel was “How do we show teachers that the pedagogy should drive the technology and not the other way around? I am thrilled that in the first three weeks of May 2013 the Wheel poster was downloaded 6500 times and this blog is averaging 1000 visits a day at the time of publishing this post.
So why the need for Version 2.0? What are the changes, and is it worth downloading again? I will share some of my thinking and the “ah ahas”
We need to have transformation at the core of what we do: If it is all about the students, where do you start with curriculum and/or teaching design – surely it is with what do you want your graduates to look like? i.e. what sort of capabilities and attributes should they have at the completion of your program or course. In the podcast episode “If you exercise these capabilities.. you will be employed!” Prof Geoff Scott of UWS lists 15 graduate capabilities research has shown are requested by business. These are all about transformational teaching and learning and one of the major “ah ahas” for me is that these capabilities are for the most part not targeted by our courses and programs in universities and colleges. Ask yourself the question “How many of these 15 capabilities I could confidently say are embedded in or even just touched on by the learning outcomes in my course”? To help teachers graduate attributes and capabilities are now at the core of the Padagogy Wheel V2.0 … The hope is teachers will reflect on these often when building curriculum and actually teaching and work out how they can build activities to help students excel as graduates in their chosen professions.
Technology integration into the fabric of learning and teaching: is where we should be heading with all we do as teachers. We need to ask ourselves are we using the technology to its best advantage to empower students to be all they can be or do we just use it because everyone’s doing it. How to best think about integrating technology and maximising its impact was really stretched when I met Dr P. as we call him in the Apple Distinguished Educator Community. Dr Ruben Puentedura developed the SAMR Model, which is of great help when designing activities to support learning outcomes. Consider it a grid to filter your choices made with help of the wheel. Think about how you can design activities to not just use technology as substitution but to incorporate redefinition as much as possible. Much has been written about this model and incorporating it as a filter on the outside of the Padagogy Wheel V2.0 will I think help teachers come up with some innovative outcomes and activities that improve student engagement.
Finally, can you help with V3.0?: There’s more we can do with this concept. Mobile learning and the use of tablets are fuelling a heap of new and useful apps to help learning and teaching. How do we keep the wheel up-to-date? Of course apps can also sit in more than one cognitive domain and I encourage teachers to think outside the box when choosing apps for activities. Not just adding and/or replacing new apps but there is the strength of combining two or more apps into learning sequences or activity flows and the outcomes learnt from using them this way. e.g. If I combine App A. with App B. and have students complete these activities using both these apps, do we get increased student engagement and much stronger learning outcomes? If we do, then does this help transform the learners? Also how do we gather and share lesson plan exemplars and the best practice creative use of App sequences to achieve higher order thinking from the learners? Wouldn’t these activity sequences be helpful to many teachers in the form of templates?
Please join in the conversation with your ideas and comments using the comments area of this blog.
- PADAGOGY WHEEL V2.0: This is a web page with a larger image of the wheel with iPad Apps hotlinked to iTunes Preview pages – published 280513
- PADAGOGY 101 What’s all the fuss about iPads in HE: This is an introduction to the iPad and contains reference to 29 iPad Apps from Document Readers to Project Management and links to 12 Video tutorials URL: http://www.unity.com.au/pad101
- PADAGOGY 201 It’s a Bloomin’ Better Way to Teach: This seminar gives ideas of the latest use of the Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and how the iPad can serve the pedagogy. It has reference to 62 apps with 18 video based tutorials. URL: http://www.unity.com.au/pad201
- INTRODUCTION TO THE PADAGOGY WHEEL: A 2 minute video introduction to how the wheel works. URL: http://tinyurl.com/padwheelvid
- THE PADAGOGY WHEEL POSTER: Please note this poster is now Version 2.0 a major upgrade of the original Padagogy Wheel. This has been requested by many … it is a larger format PDF file. The apps are still linked and will look acceptable when printed as an A3 size poster if required. URL: http://tinyurl.com/padwheelposter