Apple Distinguished Educators
Chain of Care in Teaching
LAMS: Learning Activity Management System
Scenario based learning
Using iPads in L&T
Values Based Education
- articulate storyline
- padagogy wheel
- iPad for learning and teaching
- Bethany International
- University of Adelaide
- learning and teaching
- padagogy wheelhouse
- Bloom's Taxonomy
- Digital Taxonomy
- learning experience
- graduate attributes
- situational learning
DOWNLOAD THE LATEST VERSION: This PDF has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages and other online resources. It could provide the backbone of a complete course or seminar on Learning Design. If you would like help with this please just ask. It also prints well as an A3 poster. With QR Codes linking to this post and the Version 3.0 explanation. You are also encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
GETTING THE BEST USE OF THE WHEEL: The Padagogy Wheel was born out of a desire to help teachers at the coalface of teaching. I wanted a model that could be applied to everything from curriculum planning, development, writing learning objectives and designing student centered activities. Then quickly help teachers access relevant educational technology e.g. individual iPad apps or sequences of apps, to enhance those activities. Finally to help teachers use that technology to redefine activities to include tasks previously inconceivable. I believe this will increase student engagement, improve learning outcomes and empower a student towards transforming into an excellent graduate.
This model is a work in progress … always under review and improvement. Remember its purpose is a reminder to teachers to rethink everything they are doing. A warning: ignoring steps is in my opinion, part of the reason some of our teaching and learning, especially in Higher Education, is so ineffective in bringing about transformation. It is helpful to think about the Wheel as a number of grids through which you filter what you are doing – a way of thinking.
- THE ATTRIBUTES GRID: This is the core of learning design. Teachers or Educator/Academics must constantly revisit Graduate Attributes, things like ethics, responsibility and citizenship, as well as Capabilities for employment. They need to do the hard yards of articulating what they expect an excellent graduate of a program is to “look like” i.e. what is it that a graduate is and does that makes them and their communities define them as successful. Some universities at least in Australia and England, and I would expect in the USA, are constantly working on their graduate attributes and are mapping their programs to them. The blog post by Geoff Scott is really eye opening for college educators. Please visit “If you exercise these capabilities.. You will be employed!” If teachers don’t have a clear picture of the qualities and capabilities of an excellent graduate of their program is, then that is a huge problem and they need to set aside quality time to define this. Now when they have this list of attributes and capabilities, they need to look at their courses and pedagogy and ask ‘how does everything I do support these attributes?’ Is there any way I can build content and activities that help students become “excellent”? Have a look at what the University of Greenwich is doing in the UK. Please visit ”Graduate Attributes – Spin or Education?” and the podcast episode “What Does a Xxxxxx Graduate Look Like?“
- THE MOTIVATIONS GRID: Once they are thinking attributes and capabilities, teachers then need to constantly revisit motivation. Asking themselves “Why am I doing this again?” That is not a joke. I am referring to the choices of learning outcomes, development of activities and design of content e.g. writing text and even making videos. So the wheel introduces a 21st century model of motivation that science has developed. It is so well presented by Dan Pink in the TEDtalk “The Puzzle of Motivation” Thinking through the grid of Autonomy Mastery and Purpose and filtering everything you do from idea-creation to assessment will, I believe, significantly help your teaching be transformational. Consistently asking the question, “How does the learning environment and activity experience I am building give the learner autonomy, mastery and purpose?” Asking that question and adapting what you do could change everything.
- THE BLOOMS GRID: The Blooms Taxonomy is really a way of helping teachers design learning objectives that achieve higher order thinking. You start by thinking “cognitive domain categories”. You start with “remembering and understanding” that’s the easiest category to serve with objectives but produces the least effective objectives in achieving transformation. When supporting academics, I recommend they try to get at least one learning objective from each category and always push towards the domain category of Creating where higher order thinking takes place. This is the “By the time you finish this workshop/seminar/lesson you should be able to. . . ” type of thinking. With the emergence of the importance of social constructivism i.e. research showing the effectiveness of student centric and activity based learning, those learning objectives need to be mapped clearly to activities. So a better question is “By the time you finish this workshop/seminar/lesson you should be able to <choose and action verb> BY <then choose an activity or outcome>. Now you are ready for technology enhancement.
- THE TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENT GRID: With learning objectives and outcomes sorted, now think about technology aka apps. How can this serve your pedagogy? You can choose any app or technology you like, the wheel only suggests apps that can support the learning objectives and activities at the time of publishing. The Padagogy Wheel constantly needs updating with apps as they are released. Teachers also should think customization all the time – is there a better tool for the job of enhancing my defined pedagogy?
- THE SAMR GRID: Now is the time to think about how to apply this powerful
model. For more information on SAMR visit this Queensland Govt. Schools Classrooms Connections website. You need answers to such questions as “How are you going to use the technologies you have chosen”? Take each of your activities and think through how you will use the technology for each task. Ask yourself “Does this activity just substitute i.e. students could easily achieve tasks without this chosen technology, or can I augment or modify the tasks to improve the activity and increase engagement”? Finally sieve your curriculum building activities and your teaching practice through the SAMR grid of redefinition. Is there any task you can build into the activity that without the technology would not be possible? You can tell when you are successful with this, as there is bound to be one student who will comment “Hey that is cool!”
Please take the Padagogy Wheel out for a spin every day you are teaching and use it. Then share your experiences especially your best practice … your colleagues will benefit from your collaboration, appreciate it and together we can build transformational outcomes and help students become excellent practitioners and graduates.
The Padagogy Wheel V3.0: Learning Design starts with graduate attributes, capabilities and motivation
- DOWNLOAD: This is good quality Acrobat PDF of the Padagogy Wheel V3.0 which has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages. It also prints well as an A3 poster with QR Codes linking back to the blog entry and Youtube Video. You are encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
I am still a little numb at the amazing interest in, and discussion about, the Padagogy Wheel from teachers and educators around the world. It is only a week since I published my last blog post “The Padagogy Wheel V2.0: It’s all about transformation and integration“. and the poster is at 8000 downloads and 500-800 people visit the blog a day and about 300 tweets a day as well.. I owe a sincere thank you to Jeff Dunn and the team at Edudemic for the encouraging first article “Integrate iPads Into Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy With This ‘Padagogy Wheel’” then the second blog post “New Padagogy Wheel Helps You Integrate Technology Using SAMR Model” The second article really did whip up an interest storm. I think you will appreciate the posts.
So why yet another version only one week later? Well out of the buzz about V2.0 came a suggestion that I couldn’t lay down, it ran around my head for days. A good friend said, “You know motivation is also at the core of the Wheel … how would that work?” Add to this line of thinking the fact that it seems all the excitement is about how Blooms interacts with the SAMR model and no one seems to be talking about the core of the wheel – Graduate Attributes and Capabilities. I wanted to upgrade the communication about the core concepts of the wheel so nobody missed their importance.
Graduate Attributes and Capabilities: Without this your learning design will drift. A major ah aha for me was when Prof Geoff Scott, the Executive Director of Sustainability at University of Western Sydney (UWS), was introduced as a keynote speaker at a Learning and Teaching Conference at the University of Adelaide in 2012. It was in during that presentation Geoff introduced research they had done within the business sector. They had asked CEO’s and executives …. the people that do the hiring, what they desired to see in graduates from Higher Education programs. When he introduced us to the top 15 requested capabilities, there was almost an audible gasp. Most of these are heart attitudes and values based. There was even more exclamation when we realised that most of them were not actively targeted by our courses. The top 15 are
- Having energy, passion and enthusiasm
- Being willing to give credit to others
- Empathising & working productively with diversity
- Being transparent and honest in dealings with others
- Thinking laterally and creatively
- Being true to one’s values and ethics
- Listening to different points of view before coming to a decision
- Understanding personal strengths & limitations
- Time management skills
- Learning from errors
- Learning from experience
- Remaining calm when under pressure
- Being able to make effective presentations to different groups
- Identifying from a mass of information the core issue/opportunity
These capabilities should be identified as part of our graduate attributes and woven into the fabric of our courses in the activity design. We need to have transformation at the core of what we do as teachers if it is all about the students. Don’t jump into learning outcomes, activity design and choosing technology without first reflecting on graduate attributes and capabilities then how to improve motivation and engagement. Skip these and your course design will be weaker for it.
Please visit the blog post and listen to the podcast episode at: “If you exercise these capabilities.. you will be employed!”
The Puzzle of Motivation: Teachers use the term engagement all the time. Engagement is about motivation. If students are not motivated learning will not happen. As I researched about motivation I discovered this TEDtalk …. of course 2.5 million others knew about it first, which naturally raised my interest. As I watched it, lights went on big time. “Ah Aha! These concepts are a grid to help people improve learning activity design and they have to go into the wheel” – V3.0 was born.
Dan Pink shows what science knows about motivation and what business does about it are largely mismatched. He presents a very strong case for a rethink about motivation in business and offers a new approach and model for the 21st century. It is built around intrinsic motivations. He introduces the elements which he says are the building blocks of a completely new operating system for businesses.
- AUTONOMY: The urge to direct our own lives
- MASTERY: The desire to get better and better at something that matters
- PURPOSE: The yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves
Dan expands on the concept of Autonomy.and introduces examples of three levels of application of this type of motivation. “Fedex Days” where staff have to deliver outcomes overnight then “The 20 Percent time” … done famously at Google. Finally the “Results Only Work Environment or ROWE” where he compares the motivation and implementation for two models of encyclopedia i.e. Encarta and Wikipedia.
Please watch this video and think about how you build curriculum, how to facilitate your courses and how to motivate tomorrows students to become all they can be as leaders that make a difference. Could this model of motivation change the way we build curriculum and teach courses – I believe used as part of the Padagogy Wheel it will go a long way in the hands of passionate teachers. Please post your comments and suggestions for new apps.
As a kid, my ultimate Christmas present was a Davy Crockett coonskin hat, the ones with the tails, remember? At the end of 2012 when I leant about a conference being held in a hotel across the road from the Alamo in Texas I have to confess I thought it was the coolest location I’ve heard of in 10 years. Of course it being the Second Immersive Learning Conference and Symposium, focusing on a pedagogical approach I have been passionate about for 9 years also helped.
I made contact with Ken Spero, a Senior Strategist with The Regis Company, and who helped design and launch the Immersive Learning University (ILU). The ILU hosted the conference and thanks to his support I was able to attend. This podcast episode recorded on SKYPE is with Ken who actually is in Philadelphia USA with me in Adelaide South Australia. Ken has been thought leading, teaching, promoting and supporting Scenario-based eLearning (aka Immersive Learning) for almost 25 years. His experience and understanding of the subject is awesome and you need to listen to the podcast a couple of times at least.
I asked Ken the question, “What are the benefits of Scenario-Based Learning” and in this podcast episode he unpacks the following seven benefits. I encourage you to reflect on these and think about your own teaching opportunities:
- They are a Form of Storytelling: A couple of notable quotes from the podcast are “If we don’t have a motivated and engaged student we have nothing” and “Harness the energy of a good story into our learning applications and we have more freedom to achieve our learning outcomes”. Ken also talks about the mother-in-law example from his booklet, how everybody can relate and so people remember. What are your thoughts on these concepts? Please use the comments area below. I also asked Ken if educators need to be good storytellers and his answer and it’s rationale is quite an “ah aha”
- They Engage Our Emotions: We talk about remembering and retrieving. Long term and short term memory.
- They Enable “Failing Forward”: We discussed if the concept of “failing is not an option” is needed in learning, about how giving students a chance to fail helps them build capacity to fix their mistakes as they would in real –life situations.
- They Promote Critical Thinking: Ken talks about context and the need for thinking and the process of judgment. We touch on the big question of “Is scenario-based learning good for all disciplines in higher education?” Ken gives a fascinating example from the teaching of history.
- They Accelerate Time: We discuss how the learning designer can use simulations to compress time to help the learner make a decision, implement it and experience its consequences all within the same exercise.
- They Provide Shared Context: Ken returns to the power of the shared story and how it impacts the learner and we discuss the profound idea that simulations may be a better way to train and may accelerate community building or bonding between people and improve morale … go listen and comment on that idea please, we would love you to join the conversation.
- They Trigger Our Memories: Ken refers to studies on how the brain works and how simulations can create linkages.
We encourage you to listen to this podcast episode carefully and reflect on how you might use scenario-based elearning in your discipline. Also please join the conversation in the comments below and if you would like to email either Ken or me Allan we would be happy to hear from you.
- Scenario-Based E-Learning: Ken Spero, ASTD INFOline series Oct 2012
Allan’s comment: This is a 16 pg. booklet published by ASTD targeted at and priced for the corporate marketplace. It sells for U$25.00. Ken mentioned a one off entry. I was not able to check that for when I went to this search page, I visited a different one of the results and am now locked out. Please take care on your first visit if you want to see the book
- Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools: Addressing Transactional Need Through Experiential Simulation: In this article Ken talks about a model he calls “Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools and models it on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs … well worth a read
- Three Keys to Designing Good Scenarios: This is a short article but touches on three important tips for designing good scenarios
- ASTD Philadelphia E-Learning SIG Presentation Capturing and Deploying Experience Through Simulations with Ken Spero: This was a presentation Ken made at the ASTD in Philadelphia on Thu Sept 20th 2012. There are a good set of PowerPoint slides here for downloading.
“Learning (and teaching, such as it is) is not a process of communication, but rather, a process of immersion. Put loosely, it suggests the idea of teaching not by telling or even demonstrating but rather through the creation (or identification) of an environment into which a learner is immersed”.
Stephen Downes (July 1 2006)
I re-discovered the above quote on a one of my seminar slides made back in 2006 while thinking about this podcast episode and blog post. Profound stuff and it was in fact 2004, when I received an unexpected email from someone who subsequently became a good friend and colleague meeting face-to-face 1.5 years later, after regular weekly Skype chats and collaborative projects together. Dr Randall Kindley from Minnesota USA introduced me to what we called then Scenario-Based Learning (SBL), Situational Learning (SL), Simulations, eSims, Role Plays and Games. This was all describing a methodology now becoming of age, which is often called Immersive Learning (IL).
The interest and energy around the campus was building steadily fueled by our work with Sheila Kavanagh OAM, a colleague and awarded burns nurse for her help in the 2002 Bali Bombings Disaster. Together we built an early example of immersive learning called the “Disaster Down Under” to help if such a tragedy ever happened again. In 2005 Randall visited Adelaide for a series of seminars and workshops. I can remember vividly how much trouble we had trying to find software to serve the need for what is called branching. IL works by presenting a learning with the 3C’s Challenges, Choices and Consequences Back then the only affordable way we could find handling branching was Moodle and that was in its early stages. Everyone realized the potential of IL but as learning designers/educators it was a challenge to support the methodology with interactive learning modules or software managed processes.
We were devastated in 2006 when we heard Randall had a massive heart attack without notice and had died – educational research lost a pioneering thought leader. However his legacy has lived on in Adelaide and he would be thrilled at knowing that today the technology has caught up to the pedagogical needs and it is a new day for IL.
In this blog entry I have listed the available links to the work of Randall and it wont take you long to realize how far ahead of the wave his thinking was – spend some time listening and reading … your teaching may never be the same again.
In 2007 while on a trip to the USA I was introduced to a software product called Simwriter. It was in its early development as well so I have been tracking it’s progress ever since. Late in 2012 I received from NexLearn the publishers, notification about an exciting new development in IL. The Immersive Leaning University (ILU) was having a Conference and Symposium in San Antonio TX in Jan 2013. Thanks to some significant prize money from 2012, I was able to attend and it was really worth it. My passion for IL has been rekindled and now “we have the technology!”. I am now exploring, learning and developing with three major software offerings
Simwriter Simplicity , Articulate Storyline and the cloud based Zebrazapps In future episodes I will be unpacking this software and sharing insights. I am also excited to be able to talk to some of today’s pioneers in pushing IL forward and publishing them as episodes… stay tuned.
Please join me in this journey and share your examples of Immersive Learning and how it helped achieve outcomes in transformative education.
The Heritage of a Prophet: Dr Randall Kindley’s Legacy
- The New Instructional Design: Situational Learning. The complete presentation as published using the early Articulate Pro software in 2005
- Distaster Down Under Scenario-based Learning: Burns Nurse Planning experience published in 2005
- Journal Article: “The Power of Simulation-based e-Learning (SIMBeL)” (2002)
- Online Magazine Article: “Scenario-Based e-Learning (SBeL): A Step Beyond Traditional E-Learning We All Can Take” (2002)
- The Situational Learning Cycle: Foundation of Simulation Learning. “Part 1: Identifying and Combining Appropriate Learning Technologies” (2003)
Immersive Learning Today: Tools and Resources
If you consider the “Continuum of Shift” applied to learning management systems, at one end you have a content-centric tool like Blackboard, then you find Moodle in the middle, and at the other, activity-centric, end you have LAMS (Learning Activity Management System), which is being used for interactive learning sequences and constructivist design in teaching. “LAMS is not really a LMS as such, it integrates with both Moodle and Blackboard and provides teachers with a highly intuitive visual authoring environment for creating sequences of learning activities. These activities can include a range of individual tasks, small group work and whole class activities based on both content and collaboration” (LAMS website). I believe this is the most useful tool for developing strong pedagogy in learning design, Higher Education has available. And when I tell people in workshops “it is Learning Design, not for dummies, but time strapped academics”, I usually have their attention.
I discovered this wonderful new software platform in 2005 and have been tracking its development ever since. In June 2011, I developed a workshop entitled “It’s All About the Students”. Forty academics attended and agreed with me about the importance of the students, and many committed to pilot the pedagogies and technologies. Actually we only had room for ten courses
The results in the pilot were all positive and I’m thrilled our leaders have captured the vision and the University of Adelaide has now adopted LAMS campus wide. We now have “LAMS@Adelaide“. I am leading the rollout project and am excited that the academics, who want to improve the student experience through strong learning design, have a practical tool they can use. They don’t have to understand all the theory behind good social constructivist pedagogy, they can easily access learning activity sequences built with best practice, customise and populate the content and run a monitored learning event face-to-face or remotely. It can be either synchronous, asynchronous or blended.
LAMS is an ideal environment for developing curriculum. It helps the design to move towards the Activity end of the Continuum of Shift. Academics can use this as a simple exercise (e.g. a survey) within a more formal lesson like a lecture and publish results in real time. Some of our academics are developing entire practicum experiences using LAMS and students can start a one hour lesson together in a computer lab guided by the teacher, and finish it in a coffee shop with their friends from the course. After one use of LAMS one course co-ordinator is planning an entire Program next year with 500+ students.
The software is open source and the best way to understand why I am excited about LAMS for Learning Design is to visit LessonLAMS.com sign up (it’s free) and “play” with it …. you will see the potential.
My host was dropping me off at the Admin building at Olivet University in Scotts Valley just south of San Francisco CA. Our car turned into a village like community snuggled in the countryside with bush (that’s Australian) all around. We approached the sign and it was hard to distinguish what was university and what was the community. It is completely physically embedded in the neighbourhood all 74 acres of it. I spent the entire day there answering questions and sharing vision. I was very comfortable. It took me quite a while to nail down what I was feeling. I realised it about lunch time – this is just like a YWAM base, it has pioneering written all over it. I was thrilled to play even a small part in their plan to build a 21st century online university from the ground up. We brainstormed the entire day starting with the students, defining how they would ”look” or be and the need to define their graduate attributes. Then how they were working on the program learning outcomes and mapping courses and learning to these outcomes.
I almost became jealous of their flexibility, how they were identifying the drivers and who was the most important stakeholder. They had clearly recognised the importance of the student then the pedagogy, then servicing their academics or teachers and then the support needed for the teaching and learning to be world class. They had it the right way around.
There is a lot of work ahead and the staff are committed to do what it takes. It was a great experience to see that the higher education DNA of Christians is alive and well.
Some links from the Podcast episode and Online Resources to think About:
- The university website of Olivet University
- Selected photos of the campus on Flicker
- A thought provoking address titled “Christian Academe vs. Christians in Academe” Kenneth C. Elzinga the Robert C. Taylor Professor of Economics at the University of Virginia delivered this Centennial University Address in September 2005 at Abilene Christian University.
I have been challenging academics with that question for many years. The Xxxxxx part is their discipline e.g. What does a Perioperative Nursing Graduate look like? It is all about defining excellence in students who complete a program or discipline. It is about the difference between good and excellent not between good and unacceptable. ”What do you mean?” is the usual response. I am talking about values and skill sets, about who graduates are and what they believe to be the drivers of life. What they value and how they will make a difference and impact their world.
I am about to leave on a three week tour of mainland USA to ask Christian universities and colleges how they map their values (graduate attributes) to their programs and courses. I have chosen Christian educational institutions as they have a mandate as part of the foundational beliefs to “make disciples” the Bible calls it. To shape their students to “be”, live and work, modelling the life of Christ. A big ask and I am particularly interested in how they use elearning methods and technologies and whether they believe the new pedagogies and technologies support their graduate attributes.
Some links from the Podcast episode and Online Resources to think About: Richard Morris, a mate and colleague is travelling with me for a large part of the trip. Richard is director of Missions Aviation Fellowship Learning Technologies or MAFLT which has as its focus learning and teaching support in the Majority World. Richard’s perspective will be very valuable to ensure the focus is Global and will help students who not only come from what used to be called the “developing countries” to learn in such countries as the USA and Australia but help them make a difference to their world … the Majority World
Finally Universities in Australia have been defining and working with graduate attributes for some years and Murdoch University in Western Australia has even a software program to help them map their attributes to their programs.
- The University of Adelaide graduate attributes and How elearning can support them.
- Murdoch University in Western Australia graduate attributes and their mapping tool.
- MAFLT (Missions Aviation Fellowship Learning Technologies), who they are and introducing Richard Morris.
- About the term the Majority World