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At The Padagogy Wheel Core: Immersive Learning Targets Engagement

Padagogy Wheel Target

Jeff Dunn Edudemic“The new version of the Padagogy Wheel tackles a major question that is lurking in the back of everyone’s mind. If it’s not … it should be. It’s about the problem of motivation in education. How do we motivate students, teachers, parents, and everyone else to get excited about learning? How do you stay motivated? What works and what doesn’t?”

Jeff Dunn: Editor Edudemic
Blog Post:Updated Padagogy Wheel
  Tackles The Problem Of Motivation in Education 

KenSpero_withCaption_ThumbnailIn this third podcast episode with Ken Spero, a Senior Strategist with The Regis Company, in Philadelphia, USA we talk about how the pedagogy of Immersive Learning is ideal to tackle the problem of motivation and hits the bullseye at the core of The Padagogy Wheel.

Ken introduces Engagement into the equation and how it drives motivation for learning. He talks about the relationship between motivation and learning design, arguing that the more motivated the learner is, the less context and learning design is needed, and vice versa. – hmmm, now reflecting on that takes more than one cup of coffee for sure. Moving along the subject of “fun” came up and I challenged Ken about simulations being gaming. We then proceeded to discuss the difference between gaming and simulations. It is all about reality and alternate reality of the experience.

I asked Ken if he thought Immersive learning would help teachers work with mutually agreed graduate attributes and capabilities, helping the students embed them in their lives. His response that you can’t teach these in a classroom alone but have to witness them in the real world is fascinating..

We talked about how simulations are ideal for testing and modeling attributes and capabilities measured in context. Then the challenge, that you don’t suddenly learn a capability like “perseverance”.  These attributes and capabilities need to be observed – they are evidenced in behaviours.   You can teach about them but that doesn’t incorporate them into behaviour.

It is so logical when you think about it …or at least when you hear Ken explain the process. If we put the learner into a situation, which requires choices and has consequences in a simple context and story, if it is realistic and the learners are engaged, we can give the learner choices or options which are equally as good as each other but which demonstrate different biases, behaviours and preferences.

Instruction is fundamentally linear, however with attributes and capabilities a lot cannot be separated from each other, they are linked – a part of the same big picture.  We can provide instruction to address any of the fifteen listed in the capability list on the pedagogy wheel poster – but only one at a time. We can actually create simulations to manifest numerous of these 15 capabilities simultaneously in a story. A simulation allows us to leverage off these dynamics within the context of a story

Ken describes in detail how a simulation is a better way to provide a realistic context for learners to demonstrate attributes values and capabilities and provide a close to realistic way for learners to practice for the real world of work. He speaks of the need to adjust and prioritize.

laptopsplitarrowSMLBullseye! Immersive Learning has major advantages over conventional instructional design when addressing the core of the Padagogy Wheel model “Graduate Attributes and Capabilities”.

He goes on the talk about immersion not only for adults but how it can work for the K-12 learning environments Ken explains how to immerse students into the story… the context.  He uses history and the approach of having the students living in the experience … “a day in the life of” approach to a simulation.

He talks about scorecards reflecting the norms of the times and context of the simulation which makes the weighting of choices possible – how a scorecard is similar to a rubric. A scorecard reflects the core elements or behaviours and how we can address autonomy mastery and purpose … the puzzle of motivation.

I had to ask Ken in the middle of the interview … “OK I’m convinced, but how do you start to build a simulation? Is there a process and even better a checklist or template a teacher could follow when wanting to build a simulation for the first time?”  He proceeded to expand his six steps on “Getting Started” from his book “Scenario-Based E-Learning”. (see link in the online resources below).  Following is a direct extract of that section of his book … I can’t say it any better.

Getting Started

Developing a simulation includes elements such as plot and characters that may be new to many designers. However, by concentrating on your learning objectives and the desired performance outcome, you can give focus to your simulation and provide a rich and engaging learning experience. When designing your scenario, follow this six-step framework:

  1. Identify the specific problem or issue that needs to be fixed.
  2. Envision the desired experience. What do you want people to experience when they go through the narrative? Is it a change in behavior? Is it the application of a new skill? Do you want to reinforce something they have been taught elsewhere? Or to allow them to fail forward in a safe environment? What is the outcome you are looking for?
  3. Determine the timeline in which this experience takes place. Is it during the course of an hour-long meeting? A day-in-the-life? A week-in-the-life? A year-in-the-life? This will provide some necessary context for the narrative and determine its scope.
  4. Define success. How is success going to be measured in the experience? What are the learning objectives? Who are the stakeholders and how are they affected by a successful or unsuccessful learning outcome? Is there financial impact or only interpersonal? By truly understanding the scorecard, we can identify root challenges and how to successfully overcome them.
  5. Add conflict. Learners need to face a simulated challenge and solve it as they would in a real-life situation.
  6. Finish the story. After you finish the core narrative, you will be able to go back later and add branches if you like. These elements do not need to be detailed or formalised at this point—you just want enough information to provide a framework.

Now, you should have a solid foundation on which you can build a simulation that is compelling and results in better retention and transfer.

Listen to this podcast episode and download the very helpful job aid in the online resources listed below.  Please don’t just file it away for future reference. As soon as possible grab a SME (subject matter expert) and work through it. Get something on paper and start building a simulation.  Your students will be very grateful. Keep this up and the community will really appreciate your graduates – these graduates will truly make a difference.

Podcast Episode:

 It’s All About Engagement

Simulations are a tool to help students engage with the learning and I began to wonder what engagement-based learning might look like across an entire program – even across all education – and I found this TEDtalk by Gever Tulley on YouTube.  He targets big questions like: Where does competence come from? and  What kinds of experiences predispose children (and adults) to heroic behaviours later in life?

One of the major “ah ahas” for me in this video was “Create a meaningful experience and the learning will follow and do this BEFORE you design any sort of curriculum.  Gever goes on to define a new pedagogical unit he calls the ark. Watch this video and implement this model with simulations and filter everything you design through the grids of the Padagogy Wheel.  Start this at a school and arm your students with a portfolio as Gever describes and they will not only get through the university of their choice, but as graduates they will impact their worlds and make a difference.

Online Resources

Immersive Learning & Simulations Story So Far: If you would like to visit all the blog entries so far that are about Simulations and how to build what I have called ILMS’ (Immersive Learning Micro Simulations) using the latest multimedia software, please follow this link.

  • Scenario and Simulation Authoring Job Aid:  A four-page questionnaire designed as guidance for designers when working with subject matter experts (SMEs) to author a scenario-based learning program. In order to capture and deploy the most realistic and effective scenario possible, SME knowledge has to be transferred to the designer. This job aid will provide a process to capture and transfer that knowledge, through two design approaches. Approach A is an analytical approach. Answering the questions below will provide enough data to author a scenario. Approach B is a storytelling approach. Simply relate what happens in a typical day in the life of the person whose job is recreated in the scenario. Please note that names, situations, and specifics should be changed to protect the identity of the persons involved, and disguise the real-life situations if they are described to provide insight to the scenario. Download the PDF
  • Scenario-Based E-Learning: Ken Spero, ASTD INFOline series Oct 2012
Allan’s comment: This is a 16 pg. booklet published by ASTD targeted at and priced for the corporate marketplace. It sells for U$25.00. Ken mentioned a one off entry.  I was not able to check that for when I went to this search page, I visited a different one of the results and am now locked out.  Please take care on your first visit if you want to see the book
  • Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools: Addressing Transactional Need Through Experiential Simulation: In this article Ken talks about a model he calls “Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools and models it on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs … well worth a read
  • Three Keys to Designing Good Scenarios: This is a short article but touches on three important tips for designing good scenarios
  • ASTD Philadelphia E-Learning SIG Presentation Capturing and Deploying Experience Through Simulations with Ken Spero:  This was a presentation Ken made at the ASTD in Philadelphia on Thu Sept 20th 2012. There are a good set of PowerPoint slides here for downloading.

Immersive Learning Today: Software Tools and Resources

The Padagogy Wheel Story So Far: I developed this concept in July 2012 for use in face-to-face seminars as an aid to understand how to best use the iPad for education.  The interest has been amazing and it has grown into a Learning Design Model for Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching.  There is the latest version of the Wheel (V3) as well as help how to get the best use from the model, please follow this link.

  • Download the Latest Version of the Padagogy Wheel Poster: This PDF has all the Apps hot linked to their iTunes preview pages and other online resources. It could provide the backbone of a complete course or seminar on Learning Design. If you would like help with this please just ask.  It also prints well as an A3 poster. With QR Codes linking to this post and the Version 3.0 explanation.  You are also encouraged to print it out for use in your college or school.
  • Introduction to the Padagogy Wheel: A 2 minute video introduction to how the wheel works.
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Do it then teach it: learning from and building on experience

Ken Spero and Allan in SkypeThe more I share with Ken Spero about immersive learning and building e-simulations, the more I am convinced that the creative hard work end of building these powerful learning objects happens before anyone starts using any sort of software. This is the second of three podcast episodes we are doing to lay the pedagogical foundations and practical guidelines to help learning designers and teachers build Immersive Learning Micro Simulations (ILMS).  Following on from the seven “Benefits of Scenario-Based Learning … the New Instructional Design” Ken highlighted in our first episode, I asked him about how we can identify the lessons from experience and build them into learning opportunities. We discussed how to capture experience and three components of experience design – consequences, narrative feedback and the scorecard.

We explored where to start building a scenario and Ken unpacks the seven basic building blocks of good experience design

  1. Learning objectives: how objectives tie to the scorecard what we are trying to capture in the scenarios
  2. Settings: From the boundaries, we need to create the setting.  Ken visits the dynamics of reality TV and how people respond.
  3. Characters: we talk about stakeholders
  4. Plot: What is the story driven by the experience. Ken describes the plot as an apprenticeship in 30-45 minutes and interesting perspective.
  5. Scorecard: Ken explains this important part of experience design. He introduces the idea of learned helplessness and suggests we have forgotten how to win
  6. Decision Alternatives: We discuss the importance of building important decision alternatives and how they help the learner to critically think.
  7. Branching: This links the choices and propels the story.

The next question exploded into a really important discussion which we realized was the making of it’s own episode. It was about how to build collaboration into the modules and then manage that process.

The final subject for this episode was about moving beyond the decision tree. Ken surprised me by saying that when designing simulations, the decision tree becomes a key stumbling block and often leads to a poor result.  This was an important “ah aha” for me as I thought it was an integral step in planning the story.  Listen to how he explains it can be avoided and please ask any questions in the comment area below and Ken will answer them.

In the next podcast episode with Ken we will talk about how you can get started developing a Simulation. We will give you a six step practical framework and provide a Job Aid for Scenario and Simulation Authoring, which will be very helpful in managing your experience design projects.  Please subscribe and check it out when published.

Also you will learn much from the YouTube embedded webcast below. It is a recording of a webinar Ken gave recently called “Why Smart People Make Not Smart Decisions“. In it Ken speaks about critical thinking and two ends of a spectrum “mindfulness and mindlessness” and how scenarios encourage mindfulness.

Podcast Episode:

Online Resources

  • Scenario-Based E-Learning: Ken Spero, ASTD INFOline series Oct 2012
    Allan’s comment: This is a 16 pg. booklet published by ASTD targeted at and priced for the corporate marketplace. It sells for U$25.00. Ken mentioned a one off entry.  I was not able to check that for when I went to this search page, I visited a different one of the results and am now locked out.  Please take care on your first visit if you want to see the book
  • Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools: Addressing Transactional Need Through Experiential Simulation: In this article Ken talks about a model he calls “Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools  and models it on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs … well worth a read
  • Three Keys to Designing Good Scenarios: This is a short article but touches on three important tips for designing good scenarios
  • ASTD Philadelphia E-Learning SIG Presentation Capturing and Deploying Experience Through Simulations with Ken Spero:  This was a presentation Ken made at the ASTD in Philadelphia on Thu Sept 20th 2012. There are a good set of PowerPoint slides here for downloading.
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Articulate Storyline: More Than Software It’s An Ecosystem

AllanS headshotI have been instrumental over the last 4 years in introducing many of the teaching faculty at the University of Adelaide to Articulate Studio Pro. It is three software tools that used together can create rapid access elearning.  I called their output Interactive Learning Modules or ILM’s.  When in May 2012 Articulate released a new product called Storyline (SL) and I realized it handled decision branching, simulations became possible and an entirely new world of pedagogy opened up.  ILMS changed meaning to Immersive Learning Micro Sims. The thought leaders in L&T on campus are now asking for training and support for simulation development with this powerful new tool.

As I have been exploring and learning SL, I have discovered it is not just software, but an entire ecosystem of products, digital assets and people benefiting from each other. SL is what I refer to as “80/20 software”.  80% of people will use 20% of the features and functionality 80% of the time and find it a satisfactory investment. (Some-what like Photoshop actually)  While the 20% of people who push the envelope, learn and use 80% of the power of SL will most likely end up as excellent educators, with outstanding student outcomes and even a few prizes along the way.

The purpose of this episode and blog post is to introduce you to the Storyline Ecosystem . There are many web links and resources here – if you are serious about interactive student centric learning and in particular simulations … bookmark them all and visit regularly. Much of what follows not only works in Storyline, but such other simulation development tools as Simwriter and even can be embedded in or linked to Apple iBooks and iTunesU courses.

Interaction Design Course

Interaction Design Course

  • Interaction Design FundamentalsA 3 hour 18 mins video based tutorial course on Lynda.com.  In L&T it is all about the students. When developing effective curriculum, it is all about starting with people and interaction.  Dr David M. Hogue teaches about people, what motivates them, how they think and behave. Master this before touching the software.
  • Articulate Storyline: The next generation of eLearning development software.
  • The Storyline ShowcaseImaginations the limit and this page show cases great examples of what is possible.  Not all of them were published as tablet friendly, but HTML 5 is always a choice.
  • The E-Learning Heroes:  The Articulate Community, which at the moment is 107,816 e-learning professionals and growing.
  • Tutorials on Building Better Courses: These are community resources with some “how to’s”.
  • Storyline Tutorials: This is a Storyline specific tutorials and support page.
  • Translating Storyline Content: In a global learning world, this resource is of special interest.
  • Learning Storyline Launchpad: The motherload of Storyline links. This is where I start each session when learning SL. It is a detailed Mindmeister mind map  of resources and “how to’s”. It is a comprehensive visual representation of the Storyline ecosystem. Go and visit this and spend some hours there – you will learn a great deal.

Design Assets to add Professionalism to the Look and Feel

  • Instructional Design Tips  and Graphic Design Tips: from the eLearning Brothers blogs.
  • eLearning Template News and Assets: Another eLearning Bros blog to help.
  • eLearning Brothers Library: eLearning templates, games and cut out people photos and illustrations and short video clips. These can take your look and feel to the next level of professionalism.
  • eLearning Brothers Interaction Builder:  Quickly build eLearning interactions & games! The Interaction Builder is web browser based online software, that lets you choose from a library of interactions and games. You then input your information, download the finished interaction, and insert it into your authoring tool.
  • eLearning Art:  20,000+ elearning templates and images great collection of eLearning characters adaptable for scenarios with cut out actual photos in hundreds of different poses. Also illustrations, speech bubbles and backgrounds. Backgrounds can be used with green screen photography, which will be the subject of another episode.
  • Build Your Own Background: Hints and resources about how to construct your own backgrounds for scenes.
  • eLearning Stock.com: Royalty-free stock for eLearning.  Illustrated and Animated characters images and authoring templates.
  • 2conv.com: An excellent video and music converter, supporting all popular formats. This video to mp3 converting application is easy to use, handy and useful.
  • Newspaper Clipping Generator: Create a realistic Newspaper image customized with you own content.
  • Object2VR: Excellent software for both Windows and Mac for developing interactive 360 deg object movies Output can be HTML5 mobile friendly.
  • Pano2VR: An application to convert spherical or cylindrical panoramic images into Adobe Flash 10,HTML5 (WebGL/iPhone/iPad), or QuickTime VR(QTVR) with features such as customisable skins, multi-resolution (gigapixel panoramas), hotspots and directional sound.

Articles, Blog Posts and Online Resources

Online Tutorials

There are links to tutorials embedded in some of the sites mentioned above but I have just seen a blog post posted (Apr 2nd 2013) titled “The World’s Largest Repository of Free Online Learning Tools” It contains a definitive list of tutorials.  I just had to revisit here and share the link. Tom Kuhlmann who manages “The Rapid E-Learning Blog” for Articulate guesses it contains about 3,000 tutorials and 250 hours of free training on building rapid elearning courses. I think he is really close and the list sure is a mother load of great tutorial resources. It is really worth a visit.

Soon I will post an episode about how to make your own movies using your own actors and dropping out backgrounds with green screening for embedding into Storyline and other products. Also how to create animated avatars giving realistic scenes and interactions superior in look and feel to what’s possible in Second Life.

If you have discovered further resources I have missed, then please add them to the comments below. Please help build the knowledge and join the conversation.

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The Benefits of Scenario-Based Learning … the New Instructional Design

As a kid, my ultimate Christmas present was a Davy Crockett coonskin hat, the ones with the tails, remember? :-)  At the end of 2012 when I leant about a conference being held in a hotel across the road from the Alamo in Texas I have to confess I thought it was the coolest location I’ve heard of in 10 years.  Of course it being the Second Immersive Learning Conference and Symposium, focusing on a pedagogical approach I have been passionate about for 9 years also helped.

kenspero_leftI made contact with Ken Spero, a Senior Strategist with The Regis Company, and who helped design and launch the Immersive Learning University (ILU).  The ILU hosted the conference and thanks to his support I was able to attend.  This podcast episode recorded on SKYPE is with Ken who actually is in Philadelphia USA with me in Adelaide South Australia. Ken has been thought leading, teaching, promoting and supporting Scenario-based eLearning (aka Immersive Learning) for almost 25 years. His experience and understanding of the subject is awesome and you need to listen to the podcast a couple of times at least.

I asked Ken the question, “What are the benefits of Scenario-Based Learning” and in this podcast episode he unpacks the following seven benefits. I encourage you to reflect on these and think about your own teaching opportunities:

  1. They are a Form of Storytelling:  A couple of notable quotes from the podcast are “If we don’t have a motivated and engaged student we have nothing” and “Harness the energy of a good story into our learning applications and we have more freedom to achieve our learning outcomes”. Ken also talks about the mother-in-law example from his booklet, how everybody can relate and so people remember. What are your thoughts on these concepts? Please use the comments area below. I also asked Ken if educators need to be good storytellers and his answer and it’s rationale is quite an “ah aha”
  2. motherinlawfinalThey Engage Our Emotions: We talk about remembering and retrieving. Long term and short term memory.
  3. They Enable “Failing Forward”: We discussed if the concept of “failing is not an option” is needed in learning, about how giving students a chance to fail helps them build capacity to fix their mistakes as they would in real –life situations.
  4.  They Promote Critical Thinking:  Ken talks about context and the need for thinking and the process of judgment. We touch on the big question of “Is scenario-based learning good for all disciplines in higher education?” Ken gives a fascinating example from the teaching of history.
  5. They Accelerate Time: We discuss how the learning designer can use simulations to compress time to help the learner make a decision, implement it and experience its consequences all within the same exercise.
  6. They Provide Shared Context:  Ken returns to the power of the shared story and how it impacts the learner and we discuss the profound idea that simulations may be a better way to train and may accelerate community building or bonding between people and improve morale … go listen and comment on that idea please, we would love you to join the conversation.
  7. They Trigger Our Memories: Ken refers to studies on how the brain works and how simulations can create linkages.

We encourage you to listen to this podcast episode carefully and reflect on how you might use scenario-based elearning in your discipline. Also please join the conversation in the comments below and if you would like to email either Ken or me Allan we would be happy to hear from you.

Podcast Episode:

Online Resources

  • Scenario-Based E-Learning: Ken Spero, ASTD INFOline series Oct 2012
    Allan’s comment: This is a 16 pg. booklet published by ASTD targeted at and priced for the corporate marketplace. It sells for U$25.00. Ken mentioned a one off entry.  I was not able to check that for when I went to this search page, I visited a different one of the results and am now locked out.  Please take care on your first visit if you want to see the book
  • Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools: Addressing Transactional Need Through Experiential Simulation: In this article Ken talks about a model he calls “Learning’s Hierarchy of Tools  and models it on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs … well worth a read
  • Three Keys to Designing Good Scenarios: This is a short article but touches on three important tips for designing good scenarios
  • ASTD Philadelphia E-Learning SIG Presentation Capturing and Deploying Experience Through Simulations with Ken Spero:  This was a presentation Ken made at the ASTD in Philadelphia on Thu Sept 20th 2012. There are a good set of PowerPoint slides here for downloading.
Comments (1)

A Passion for Immersive Learning … a Nine-Year Journey

Passion for IL blog entry imageLearning (and teaching, such as it is) is not a process of communication, but rather, a process of immersion. Put loosely, it suggests the idea of teaching not by telling or even demonstrating but rather through the creation (or identification) of an environment into which a learner is immersed”.

Stephen Downes (July 1 2006)

I re-discovered the above quote on a one of my seminar slides made back in 2006 while thinking about this podcast episode and blog post. Profound stuff and it was in fact 2004, when I received an unexpected email from someone who subsequently became a good friend and colleague meeting face-to-face 1.5 years later, after regular weekly Skype chats and collaborative projects together.  Dr Randall Kindley from Minnesota USA introduced me to what we called then Scenario-Based Learning (SBL), Situational Learning (SL), Simulations, eSims, Role Plays and Games.  This was all describing a methodology now becoming of age, which is often called Immersive Learning (IL).

The interest and energy around the campus was building steadily fueled by our work with Sheila Kavanagh OAM, a colleague and awarded burns nurse for her help in the 2002 Bali Bombings Disaster. Together we built an early example of immersive learning called the “Disaster Down Under”   to help if such a tragedy ever happened again.  In 2005 Randall visited Adelaide for a series of seminars and workshops.   I can remember vividly how much trouble we had trying to find software to serve the need for what is called branching.  IL works by presenting a learning with the 3C’s Challenges, Choices and Consequences   Back then the only affordable way we could find handling branching was Moodle and that was in its early stages. Everyone realized the potential of IL but as learning designers/educators it was a challenge to support the methodology with interactive learning modules or software managed processes.

We were devastated in 2006 when we heard Randall had a massive heart attack without notice and had died – educational research lost a pioneering thought leader. However his legacy has lived on in Adelaide and he would be thrilled at knowing that today the technology has caught up to the pedagogical needs and it is a new day for IL.

Randall Kindley photoIn this blog entry I have listed the available links to the work of Randall and it wont take you long to realize how far ahead of the wave his thinking was – spend some time listening and reading … your teaching may never be the same again.

In 2007 while on a trip to the USA I was introduced to a software product called Simwriter.  It was in its early development as well so I have been tracking it’s progress ever since. Late in 2012 I received from NexLearn the publishers, notification about an exciting new development in IL.  The Immersive Leaning University  (ILU) was having a Conference and Symposium in San Antonio TX in Jan 2013.  Thanks to some significant prize money from 2012, I was able to attend and it was really worth it.  My passion for IL has been rekindled and now “we have the technology!”. I am now exploring, learning and developing with  three major software offerings

Simwriter Simplicity  , Articulate Storyline  and the cloud based Zebrazapps  In future episodes I will be unpacking this software and sharing insights.  I am also excited to be able to talk to some of today’s pioneers in pushing IL forward and publishing them as episodes… stay tuned.

Please join me in this journey and share your examples of Immersive Learning and how it helped achieve outcomes in transformative education.

The Heritage of a Prophet: Dr Randall Kindley’s Legacy

  1. The New Instructional Design: Situational Learning. The complete presentation as published using the early Articulate Pro software in 2005
  2. Distaster Down Under Scenario-based Learning: Burns Nurse Planning experience published in 2005
  3. Journal Article:The Power of Simulation-based e-Learning (SIMBeL)” (2002)
  4. Online Magazine Article: “Scenario-Based e-Learning (SBeL): A Step Beyond Traditional E-Learning We All Can Take” (2002)
  5. The Situational Learning Cycle: Foundation of Simulation Learning. “Part 1: Identifying and Combining Appropriate Learning Technologies” (2003)

Immersive Learning Today: Tools and Resources

  1. Simwriter Simplicity
  2. Articulate Storyline
  3. Zebrazapps
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